David Tudor (composer – John Cage)
August 29, 1952 – Maverick Concert Hall, Woodstock, New York
Silence is golden! However, it’s not as simple as that. John Cage was the leading pioneer of experimental music and his most famous and controversial piece was titled 4’33’’. Conceived as three movements, the easy description is to say that it is four minutes and thirty three seconds of silence. What Cage demonstrated was that there is no such thing as silence. Not a note is played in 4’33’’, but the composer wanted the audience to listen to the incidental sounds in the environment. It challenged the very definition of music. The premiere, overseen by David Tudor, in Woodstock was part of a program of contemporary piano music.
October 24, 1962 – Apollo Theater, Harlem
James Brown and the Famous Flames brought the house down in the famous Apollo. Following success in the R&B charts and a following in the Southern states, this is the show that turned Brown into a national figure. He financed the show himself and used his own money again to put out the live LP from the show, against the wishes of his record label boss. Brown was vindicated when ‘Live at the Apollo’ reached Number 2 in 1963. Known as the Godfather of Soul, Brown was one of the great showmen on stage.
Bob Dylan and Joan Baez
August 28, 1963 – March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Lincoln Memorial, Washington DC
This gathering of between 200,000 and 300,000 people was a political rally for civil rights. The march began at the Washington Monument and finished at the Lincoln Memorial. There was a series of speakers and Bob Dylan performed several songs, including ‘Only a Pawn in Their Game’ and a duet with Joan Baez on ‘When the Ship Comes In’. Baez also performed Pete Seeger’s protest anthem, ‘We Shall Overcome’. The highlight of the event was not a musical performance however, but Martin Luther King’s famous ‘I Have a Dream’ speech. The Civil Rights Act was passed the following year.
July 25, 1965 – Newport Folk Festival, Rhode Island
Dylan was a favorite at the prestigious folk gathering, having performed there in 1963 and 1964. His late decision to perform an electric set when headlining in 1965 resulted in one of the great musical controversies. This was the first time that Dylan had ‘plugged in’ for a live concert in his professional career. He took to the stage backed by members of the electric blues band, the Paul Butterfield Blues Band and Al Kooper on organ. A section of the crowd began to boo and an upset Dylan walked off. He was persuaded to return but there were no more electric arrangements rehearsed, so he performed two songs acoustically. This time, there was general applause and a call for more. The popular explanation is that folk purists in the crowd thought that Dylan had ‘sold out’. Some people say the negative reaction was more to do with the poor sound quality and the shortness of the set. Some say the accounts of booing were exaggerated. Whatever really happened, Dylan did not return to the festival for another 37 years.
August 15, 1965 – Shea Stadium, New York
The world was in the grip of Beatlemania when the band embarked on their North American tour in 1965, opening at the home of the New York Mets baseball team. It was the first concert to be held in an outdoor stadium and it set a record attendance for a live show, of 55,600, which was not beaten until 1971. Arriving in a Wells Fargo armored truck, John, Paul, George, and Ringo ran to the small stage in the middle of the field, wearing their beige safari jackets. 2,000 police officers were in charge of security. The noise from the crowd was absolutely deafening and overpowered the music. Even the Beatles couldn’t hear what they were playing! They performed twelve songs, including ‘Can’t Buy Me Love’, ‘A Hard Day’s Night’, and ‘Twist and Shout’, and their set was all over in 30 minutes.
June 16, 1967 – Monterey Pop Festival, California
Hendrix was already popular in Europe but had yet to break through in his home country. His dynamic set at Monterey put that to rights. The festival was a huge success and presented an eclectic mix of music, which included The Who, Ravi Shankar, Grateful Dead, and Otis Redding. Hendrix performed his magic on ‘Hey Joe’, ‘Like a Rolling Stone’, and ‘Purple Haze’. It was his final song, ‘Wild Thing’ however, that literally set the place on fire. He had burned guitars on stage before but this occasion was captured on film and in photographs and it became his most iconic image. He kneeled over the Stratocaster, poured lighter fluid over it, set it alight, and then smashed it, throwing pieces into the crowd. Don’t try this at home.
August 27, 1968 – Democratic National Convention in Chicago
The 4-day convention attracted thousands of protestors to the city’s streets to demonstrate against the Vietnam War. Violence erupted between the demonstrators and the police and National Guard, involving baton charges and the use of tear gas. Phil Ochs gave the protestors a focal point when he performed his signature anti-war song, ‘I Ain’t Marchin’ Anymore’. His performance inspired hundreds of people in the crowd to hold up their draft cards and burn them. This act of defiance was caught on film. When the organizers of the protests, known as the Chicago Seven, were later put on trial for inciting to riot and conspiracy, Ochs was called as a witness. The defense wanted him to sing his anthem in court but the judge would not allow it. Instead, Ochs read out the lyrics.
March 1, 1969 – Dinner Key Auditorium, Miami
By the time Jim Morrison got to the concert hall in Miami, he was drunk. The resulting gig was shambolic with Morrison ranting at the audience and abandoning songs. It was alleged by some eyewitnesses that he exposed himself briefly. There is no photographic evidence to support this. The warrant for his arrest was issued a few days later and he was charged with indecent exposure and profanity. Shows were cancelled and radio airplay lessened but the band started touring again in June. The trial took place in August 1970 and the plea was not guilty. Morrison was found guilty and returned to court in October for sentencing. He was given 6 months hard labor for the indecent exposure charge and 60 days hard labor for the profanity charge. His defense filed an appeal. Before the matter could be resolved, Morrison died in Paris in July 1971. Whether the exposure incident actually took place or not, it was clear that Morrison was frustrated at his sex symbol status and wanted to be taken seriously as a songwriter and poet. Miami was a low point in a brief but unforgettable career.